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Research Article
A contribution to mayfly studies of Western Mongolia (Insecta, Ephemeroptera)
expand article infoBolortsetseg Erdenee, Alain Maasri§, Jon K. Gelhaus, Badamdorj Bayartogtokh|
‡ Drexel University, Philadelphia, United States of America
§ Leibniz- Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries (IGB) (Berlin, Germany) and Drexel University, Philadelphia, United States of America
| National University of Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia
Open Access

Abstract

Streams in the Mongolian Altai Mountains are mostly fed from glaciers and are extreme conditions for mayflies because of high elevation, low temperatures and low annual precipitation. Previous information about mayflies of Western Mongolia is scarce, but with this study a total of 38 species belonging to 26 genera and subgenera and 8 families of mayflies has been recorded in the Mongolian Altai region. Study material was entirely imagos and collected from 78 sites during expeditions led by the Mongolian Aquatic Insect Survey in 2008, 2009 and 2010. Raptobaetopus tenellus, Caenis luctuosa and C. rivulorum are recorded as new to the fauna of Mongolia, and there are new distribution records for Ameletus montanus, Baetis (Acentrella) lapponica, Baetis sibiricus, Baetis (Labiobaetis) attrebatinus, Centroptilum luteolum, Procloeon pennulatum, Ephemerella aurivillii, Serratella setigera, Ephemera sachalinensis, Ecdyonurus (Afronurus) abracadabrus, Cinygmula kurenzovi, Ecdyonurus (Afghanurus) vicinus and Epeorus (Belovius) pellucidus from the Mongolian Altai region. Baetis vernus and Ephemerella aurivillii are the most frequently encountered species in this region.

Keywords

Raptobaetopus tenellus, Caenis luctuosa, C. rivulorum, Biodiversity, Altai Mountain Range, Aquatic Insects

Introduction

Early studies of the mayfly fauna from the Mongolian region date to 1940 by Kinji Imanishi (Landa and Soldán 1983), although the major focus of this work consisted of exploring Inner Mongolia, a province of China, and to a lesser extent, the modern state of Mongolia (Bae et al. 2000). A decade later, Tshernova (1952) was the first to thoroughly describe the Mongolian (i.e., from the current Mongolian State) mayfly fauna with a paper including describing a new species, Baetis mongolicus (later, redescribed as a synonym of Baetis (Labiobaetis) tricolor by Kluge (2012)), from Khalkh gol, Eastern Mongolia. Most recently, Soldán et al. (2009), published a review of the Mongolian mayfly fauna and listed a total of 96 species belonging to 34 genera and 14 families. Of these, 28 species were recorded from Western Mongolia (defined as Uvs, Khovd and Bayan-Olgiy provinces of Mongolia).

Most of the area of Western Mongolia is highly elevated, mostly dominated by the Mongolian Altai Mountains, which have permanent glacial snow at the highest points. The average altitude of the Mongolian Altai Mountains is about 3200–3500 m a.s.l. The air temperature of the warmest month in Mongolian Altai Mountains is 12.3 °C in the higher areas and 21.1 °C in the lower areas of the region (Altantsetseg et al. 2008). Thus, for the region sampled for this study, we consider this area of high elevation and relatively cold summers as extreme conditions for mayflies.

Mayflies occur in variety of lotic and lentic environments and these habitats, including rivers, streams, springs and lakes, occur in Western Mongolia. The entire region of Western Mongolia is included within the Central Asian Internal Watershed (CAIW) (“Internal” from, Kelderman and Batima 2006; Maasri and Gelhaus 2012) which is one of the three major basins of Mongolia (Tsegmid 1969). The CAIW is an endorheic basin but equivalent to the size of the Arctic and Pacific Ocean basins of Mongolia (Dulmaa 1979). In this watershed, streams originating from glacial melt are common, in addition to lakes that originated from tectonic and glacial processes. The largest river by its discharge is Khovd gol (“gol” refers to stream or river in Mongolian) flowing for 516 km with a drainage area of 58000 km2 (Tsegmid 1969). The second largest river is Bulgan gol, which is 268 km long, and with a drainage area of about 9180 km2. The Bulgan gol originates from south of the Mongol Altai Mountains and flows west into the Urungu River of China. Bodonch gol and Uyench gol are the next largest rivers after Bulgan gol (Myagmarjav and Davaa 1999). Three out of the five largest lakes in Mongolia (as measured by surface area) occur in the CAIW specifically Uvs, Khyargas and Khar-Us lakes (the first two listed are salt water lakes, the last one is a freshwater lake). Uvs nuur (“nuur” refers to lake in Mongolian) is the largest lake in Mongolia, with a drainage basin of 70712 km2. In addition to these there are several smaller freshwater (Khoton nuur, Khorgon nuur, Dayan nuur and Achit nuur) and saltwater lakes (Uureg nuur) in the basin (Myagmarjav and Davaa 1999).

In this paper, we provide data on the species composition of mayflies in Western Mongolia and the Altai Mountains in order to contribute to the inventory of aquatic insect biodiversity in this relatively unexplored area of Mongolia and the larger Central Asian region. This study has the specificity to include a wide range of aquatic habitat types distributed along a wide latitudinal gradient.

Materials and methods

Study area

Mayfly samples were collected throughout the three provinces (aimags) of Western Mongolia, namely Khovd, Bayan-Olgiy and Uvs. We collected a total of 2180 adult specimens from 78 sites (Figure 1) in the Mongolian Altai mountain region, along streams, rivers, springs and several large lakes. Sampling sites included a wide range of elevation between 923 to 2798 m a.s.l, and a majority of streams and rivers (Figures 2 to 7, and Appendix 1).

Figure 1.

Sampling sites in the Mongolian Altai Mountain range (2008–2010).

Figure 2.

Khovd gol (site # 4).

Figure 3.

Khoton nuur (site # 13).

Figure 4.

Uyench gol (site # 45).

Figure 5.

Bortiin gol (site # 49).

Figure 6.

Turgen gol (site # 73).

Figure 7.

Baruunturuun gol (site # 77).

Sampling

Imago samples were collected in the framework of the Mongolian Aquatic Insect Survey (see Gelhaus 2012; Phillips-Iversion and Gelhaus 2010) in July of each year between 2008 and 2010. At each sampling site, sweep net and Malaise traps were used to collect mayfly imagos and occasionally white and black light traps were used to complement the collection. Two Malaise traps were set overnight directly along the stream channel with the head end of the trap adjacent to the stream bank. After collection, all specimens were preserved in the field in 80% ethanol solution. If subimagos were captured alive, they were kept in a dry place until the imago emerged.

Specimens were identified in the laboratory using a Leica EZ4 dissecting microscope and identification keys (Bajkova 1972; 1974; Kluge 1980; 1987; Tshernova 1952; 1964; Tshernova and Belov 1982). All specimens are preserved at the Institute of Meteorology, Hydrology and Environment, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.

Results

A total of 38 species, belonging to 26 genera and subgenera and 8 families of mayflies, are recorded in this study area (Figure 8). Among these, Raptobaetopus tenellus Albadra, 1878, Caenis luctuosa (Burmeister, 1839) and C. rivulorum Eaton, 1884 are new to the fauna of Mongolia, and there are new distribution records in Western Mongolia for 13 species: Ameletus montanus Imanishi, 1930, Baetis (Acentrella) lapponica Bengtsson, 1912, Baetis (Acentrella) sibiricus Kazlauskas, 1963, Baetis (Labiobaetis) attrebatinus Eaton, 1870, Centroptilum luteolum (Müller, 1776), Procloeon pennulatum (Eaton, 1870), Ephemerella aurivillii Bengtsson, 1909, Serratella setigera (Bajkova, 1965), Ephemera sachalinensis Matsumura, 1911, Ecdyonurus (Afronurus) abracadabrus (Kluge, 1983), Cinygmula kurenzovi (Bajkova, 1965), Ecdyonurus (Afghanurus) vicinus Demoulin, 1964, and Epeorus (Belovius) pellucidus (Brodsky, 1930). The following species list gives the specific localities where a species was found as site number (#), and Figure 8 ranks the species by number of sites where each species occurred. In the species list, preceding the species name, (*) refers to a new record for the Western Mongolia and (**) refers to a new record for the country.

Figure 8.

Species of mayflies recorded in Western Mongolia (ordered by the number of site occurrences). The different colors on the bar for each species represent the three main habitats and the length represents the number of occurrences for each type.

Ameletidae

- * Ameletus montanus Imanishi, 1930 - # 22, 26, 31

Baetidae

- * Baetis (Acentrella) lapponica Bengtsson, 1912 - # 31, 51, 59

- Baetis (Acentrella) sp. 1 - # 1, 2, 4, 24, 27, 31, 33, 43, 47, 53, 56, 63, 65, 72, 77

- * Baetis (Acentrella) sibiricus Kazlauskas, 1963 - # 3, 16, 34, 35, 49, 50

- * Baetis (Labiobaetis) attrebatinus Eaton, 1870 - # 47, 70

- Baetis vernus Curtis, 1834 - # 2, 3, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 15, 16, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 29, 32, 35, 37, 38, 40, 45, 51, 52, 53, 56, 59, 61, 62, 63, 71

- Baetis sp. 1 - # 1, 3, 15, 18, 24, 41, 60, 62, 65, 66, 68

- Baetopus sp. 1 - # 60, 64

- * Centroptilum luteolum (Müller, 1776) - # 31, 37, 39

- * Procloeon pennulatum (Eaton, 1870) - # 59, 60, 61, 64, 66

- Procloeon sp. 1 - # 13

- Pseudocentroptilum sp. 1 - # 3, 22, 43, 48, 57

- Pseudocloeon sp. 1 - # 8, 16, 17

- ** Raptobaetopus tenellus Albadra, 1878 - # 57, 61, 63, 67, 71

Caenidae

- ** Caenis luctuosa (Burmeister, 1839) - # 16, 53

- ** Caenis rivulorum Eaton, 1884 - # 13

- Caenis robusta Eaton, 1884 - # 53, 58

Ephemerellidae

- Drunella triacanhta (Tshernova, 1949) - # 23, 41

- * Ephemerella aurivillii Bengtsson, 1909 - # 5, 6, 16, 19, 28, 31, 33, 35, 36, 37, 38, 41, 65, 67, 68, 70, 71, 73, 75

- Ephemerella mucronata (Bengtsson, 1909) - # 3, 38

- Ephemerella nuda Tshernova, 1949 - # 1, 3, 10, 11, 29, 30, 40, 53, 65, 66

- Ephemerella sp. 1 - # 30, 60

- Serratella ignita (Poda, 1761) - # 24, 43, 45, 54, 59, 61, 63, 66, 76

- * Serratella setigera (Bajkova, 1965) - # 43

- Uracanthella punctisetae Matsumura, 1931 - # 33, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43

Ephemeridae

- * Ephemera sachalinensis Matsumura, 1911 - # 43

Heptageniidae

- Cinygmula cava (Ulmer, 1927) - # 6, 17, 18, 19, 23, 31, 36, 65, 68, 69, 70, 73, 74, 75

- * Cinygmula kurenzovi (Bajkova, 1965) - # 4, 63

- * Ecdyonurus (Afghanurus) vicinus Demoulin, 1964 - # 18, 20, 22, 24, 45, 46, 47, 61, 65, 66, 72, 77, 78

- * Ecdyonurus (Afronurus) abracadabrus (Kluge, 1983) - # 43

- * Epeorus (Belovius) pellucidus (Brodsky, 1930) - # 3, 33, 36, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 47, 61

- Epeorus sp. 1 - # 19

- Heptagenia flava Rostock, 1878 - # 53, 54, 60

- Heptagenia sulphurea (Müller, 1776) - # 3, 53

- Rhithrogena lepnevae Brodsky, 1930 - # 2, 3, 24, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 60, 78

- Rhithrogena sibirica Brodsky, 1930 - # 4, 19, 31, 32, 38, 55, 64, 67, 73

Polymitarcyidae

- Ephoron nigridorsum (Tshernova, 1934) - # 53

Siphlonuridae

- Siphlonurus lacustris Eaton, 1970 - # 12, 14, 56, 57, 71, 75, 78

Of the 38 species recorded as adults, 36 occurred along streams and rivers. Three species, Caenis robusta, Baetis (Acentrella) sibiricus and Rhithrogena lepnevae, were found along both lotic and lentic habitats. Only two species, Procloeon sp. and Caenis rivulorum, were recorded from a lake (# 13- Khoton nuur). Five species were taken around cold springs although none was found exclusively along this habitat.

The most frequently encountered species was Baetis vernus, which was recorded from 34 of the 78 sites (Figure 8). Ephemerella aurivillii, Baetis (Acentrella) sp. 1 and Cinygmula cava were found at 19, 15, and 14 different sites, respectively. In contrast, seven species were recorded as adults only at one site: Serratella setigera (site # 43), Ephoron nigridorsum (site # 53), Ephemera sachalinensis (site # 43), Epeorus sp. 1 (site # 19), Ecdyonurus (Afronurus) abracadabrus (site # 43), Procloeon sp. 1 (site # 13), and Caenis rivulorum (site # 13). The remaining species occurred at between two to 13 sites.

Taxa richness at rivers and lakes varied between one and 16 (Figure 9). The highest taxa richness was found along Bulgan gol (16 species) with 15 and 11 species along the rivers Khovd and Sagsai, respectively. The lowest species richness (one species) was observed at 18 rivers (e.g. Bodonch gol, Bortiin gol, Buural gol etc.).

Figure 9.

Number of species occurring at each site in Western Mongolia.

Discussion

Our study shows that the Ephemeroptera fauna of Western Mongolia comprise more than one-third of the total species recorded for the country. In addition, three new species were recorded for Mongolia for the first time, Raptobaetopus tenellus, Caenis luctuosa and C. rivulorum. Raptobaetopus tenellus is a Transpalaearctic (also referred as Entire Palaearctica, Beketov (2009)) species (Bauernfeind and Soldán 2012). Distribution of this species is known from west Palaearctic (Iberian Peninsula through Europe to the northern Ural Mountains) to Eastern Palaearctic (lower Ob' River and basin in Siberia to Primoriye region) (Bauernfeind and Soldán 2012). Caenis luctuosa and C. rivulorum are both Palaearctic species. C. luctuosa was known previously from Fennoscandia east to Russia and Middle Asia, south to the Balearic Islands, Iberian Peninsula and Asia minor, and some Mediterranean Islands and North Africa (Bauernfeind and Soldán 2012). C. rivulorum is a widespread species and is considered part of the Siberian fauna (Bauernfeind and Soldán 2012). Ameletus montanus, Baetis (Acentrella) lapponica, Baetis (Acentrella) sibiricus, Baetis (Labiobaetis) attrebatinus, Centroptilum luteolum, Procloeon pennulatum, Ephemerella aurivillii, Serratella setigera, Ephemera sachalinensis, Ecdyonurus (Afronurus) abracadabrus, Cinygmula kurenzovi, Ecdyonurus (Afghanurus) vicinus and Epeorus (Belovius) pellucidus are new to Western Mongolia. Of these, Baetis (Labiobaetis) attrebatinus, Procloeon pennulatum, Ephemera sachalinensis, Ecdyonurus (Afronurus) abracadabrus and Ecdyonurus (Afghanurus) vicinus were recently recorded in Mongolia for the first time by Enkhtaivan and Soldán (2004) and Soldán et al. (2009). The remaining species were previously known in Mongolia, from the Pacific Ocean basin and Arctic Ocean basin (Bajkova and Varykhanova 1978; Braasch 1986; Kluge 2009; Landa and Soldán 1983). Baetis (Acentrella) lapponica has been recorded previously in Mongolia (Kluge 2009) in the Selenge River Basin, based on imaginal, reared from larvae, records. However, this species was not included in the checklist of the mayflies of Mongolia (Soldán et al. 2009) due to incomplete locality records. Our finding of Baetis (Acentrella) lapponica in Western Mongolia, based on adult specimens confirms the species occurrence in Mongolia and brings the Mongolian mayfly fauna to 100 species.

Mayflies are generally diverse in lotic ecosystems as the majority of species prefer well-oxygenated habitat (Merritt et al. 2008). Consequently, the highest species diversities in this study were recorded along rivers, streams and springs. Fewer species including Caenis robusta, Baetis (Acentrella) sibiricus and Rhithrogena lepnevae were sampled around both lotic and lentic habitats. Caenis robusta was collected near a river (Khovd Gol) and also a brackish lake (Shaazgai nuur). Baetis (Acentrella) sibiricus and Rhithrogena lepnevae were found at more lotic habitats rather than lentic habitats. Procloeon sp. and Caenis rivulorum were recorded only in Lake Khoton. Larvae of Caenis rivulorum were previously recorded in lakes with stony substrate as well as rivers at variable elevations between 200–500 m a.s.l. in Europe (Bauernfeind and Soldán 2012). However, the elevation of Lake Khoton is 2086 m a.s.l. making this site the highest elevation record for the species.

Baetis vernus was the most commonly encountered taxon in Western Mongolia and occurred in 45% of the sampled sites. This species was found at a variety of lotic habitats including streams and springs. The elevation range of this species in Western Mongolia extended from 1172 to 2798 m a.s.l. The wide occurrence of this species among our sampled sites is most likely due to its very broad ecological range (Bauernfeind and Soldán 2012).

Serratella setigera, Procloeon sp. 1, Ephoron nigridorsum, Ephemera sachalinensis, Epeorus sp. 1, Ecdyonurus (Afronurus) abracadabrus, and Caenis rivulorum were found only at a single sampling site. Ephoron nigridorsum and Ephemera sachalinensis are both burrowing mayflies preferring larger and lowland rivers (Bauernfeind and Soldán 2012) and were recorded at Bulgan or Khovd River, the only suitable river habitat within the sampling area. For Serratella setigera and Ecdyonurus (Afronurus) abracadabrus, both found only at Bulgan Gol (Appendix 1, site # 43), this study adds significant habitat information to what little is known on the distribution of these two species (Bauernfeind and Soldán 2012).

Conclusion

In this study a total of 38 species was recorded in Western Mongolia (Uvs, Khovd and Bayan-Olgiy provinces). Soldán et al. (2009) listed 28 species that have been recorded from the Khovd, Uvs and Bayan-Olgiy provinces, with more than half of these not collected in our sampling expeditions. Therefore, despite the valuable information taxonomic and geographical distribution of mayflies of Western Mongolia, this study does not constitute an inclusive checklist of the total mayfly fauna of Western Mongolia. This discrepancy could be related to a number of reasons due to sampling and current taxonomy. First, our sampling effort was restricted to July, a favorable period for emergence of aquatic insects in Mongolia, but nevertheless did not cover the complete ice-free period in Western Mongolia. Second, the sampling duration and number of samples at the different aquatic habitats was variable. Some rivers and streams were sampled thoroughly at different sites (e.g. Bulgan and Khovd River), others were only sampled overnight and in few sites was sampling occurring at the right timing during the day to encompass adult swarming. Therefore, our sampling might have been affected by different emergence patterns. Third, there were difficulties to identify some adult mayflies at the species level because of the lack of reliable identification keys for the Mongolia fauna and also having subimagos in the samples. Maasri and Gelhaus (2012) previously listed mayfly species based on larval identification and recorded 21 genera for the CAIW. However, Maasri and Gelhaus (2012) included sites throughout the whole CAIW, covering a wider geographical range. Erdenee (2011) in her previous study recorded 17 genera all included in this study. In addition to Soldán et al. (2009), Beketov (2005) in a survey of the Northeastern Altai Mountains recorded 25 species with 20 of these included in Western Mongolia. Therefore, our results and the available literature on Western Mongolia support the statement of an estimated number of mayfly species for this geographical area to be above 65 species.

Acknowledgements

We want to thank co-principal investigators of the MAIS project, Drs. J. Morse, R. Nelson and B. Hayford for providing the opportunity for B.E. to work in this project, and for their scientific guidance. A special thanks is given to the Mongolian Benthological Society for its encouragement, and to the Permanent Committee of the International Conference on Ephemeroptera for granting B.E. a scholarship to participate to the XIII International Conference on Ephemeroptera and XVII International Symposium on Plecoptera at which this research was presented. Authors are also thankful to Dr. W. Bouchard, Dr. Ya. Oyunchuluun., Ch. Suvdtsetseg, D. Enkhnasan, B. Uugantsetseg, and other members of the MAIS project. Funding of the MAIS project was provided by an award from US-NSF grant Biodiversity Inventories #0743732 "Survey and Inventory of the Aquatic Insects of the Altai and Hangai Mountain Drainages, Mongolia" to J. Gelhaus (PI), R. Nelson and J. Morse (co-PIs). The manuscript production benefited from the NSF grant Macrosystem Biology #1442595 “Collaborative Research: Hierarchical Functioning of River Macrosystems in Temperate Steppes - From Continental to Hydrogeomorphic Patch Scales” awarded to J. Thorp (PI), A. Maasri and J. Gelhaus (co-PIs, among others).

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Appendix 1

Study area and localities sampled for mayfly imagos in Western Mongolia. Soum refers to an administrative subunit of the aimag (or province). Dates are provided in day-month-year format.

Site number (#) Site code in the MAIS database GPS Elevation, m.a.s.l Site name Province Soum Collection date Habitat type
1 MAIS2008070301 48°19.26'N 91°18.53'E 1474 Shurag gol Khovd Erdenetburen 3.07.2008 Stream
2 MAIS2008070302 48°25.30'N 90°58.40'E 1805 Hongor-Ulun gol Khovd Erdenetburen 3–4.07.2008 Stream
3 MAIS2008070502 48°38.89'N 89°53.03'E 2065 Sagsai gol Bayan-Olgiy Sagsai 4–6.07.2008 River
4 MAIS2008070602 49°02.51'N 89°25.00'E 1775 Khovd gol Bayan-Olgiy Ulaankhus 6.07.2008 River
5 MAIS2008070701 49°14.28'N 88°54.43'E 2108 Sogoog gol Bayan-Olgiy Ulaankhus 7.07.2008 River
6 MAIS2008070702 49°14.09'N 88°54.01'E 2101 Sogoog gol Bayan-Olgiy Ulaankhus 7–8.07.2008 River
7 MAIS2008070802 49°19.11'N 88°21.98'E 2394 Ulastai gol Bayan-Olgiy Ulaankhus 8.07.2008 Stream
8 MAIS2008071001 49°06.27'N 88°02.91'E 2798 Sul Uuliin gol Bayan-Olgiy Tsengel 10.07.2008 Stream
9 MAIS2008071302 49°02.71N 88°30.53'E 2382 Khatuugiin gol Bayan-Olgiy Tsengel 13.07.2008 River
10 MAIS2008071304 48°45.53'N 88°36.06'E 2146 Unnamed tributary of Mogoitiin gol Bayan-Olgiy Tsengel 13–14.07.2008 Stream
11 MAIS2008071305 48°45.35'N 88°36.26'E 2142 Mogoitiin gol Bayan-Olgiy Tsengel 13–14.07.2008 Stream
12 MAIS2008071401 48°43.59'N 88°24.06'E 2431 Urt Khuitnii gol Bayan-Olgiy Tsengel 14.07.2008 River
13 MAIS2008071402 48°40.03'N 88°17.96'E 2086 Khoton nuur Bayan-Olgiy Tsengel 14–15.07.2008 Lake
14 MAIS2008071503 48°32.64'N 88°24.89'E 2147 Ikh Turgenii gol Bayan-Olgiy Tsengel 15–16.07.2008 Stream
15 MAIS2008071602 48°37.04'N 88°19.25'E 2115 Partizanii bulag Bayan-Olgiy Tsengel 16.07.2008 Spring
16 MAIS2008071603 48°35.92'N 88°26.21'E 2087 Syrgali gol Bayan-Olgiy Tsengel 16.07.2008 River
17 MAIS2008071604 48°30.38'N 88°30.57'E 2133 Sumdairag ol Bayan-Olgiy Tsengel 16–17.07.2008 Stream
18 MAIS2008071702 48°26.21'N 88°54.06'E 2232 Godon gol Bayan-Olgiy Sagsai 17.07.2008 River
19 MAIS2008071703 48°10.03'N 88°51.25'E 2065 Yamaatiin gol Bayan-Olgiy Sagsai 17–18.07.2008 Stream
20 MAIS2008071802 48°23.53'N 88°53.02'E 2184 Ikh Khanajashiin gol Bayan-Olgiy Sagsai 18.07.2008 Stream
21 MAIS2008071803 48°20.71'N 89°19.57'E 2422 Khoit Bardat gol Bayan-Olgiy Altai 18–19.07.2008 Stream
22 MAIS2008071901 48°14.47'N 89°36.10'E 2137 Sagsai gol Bayan-Olgiy Altai 19.07.2008 River
23 MAIS2008071902 48°32.48'N 89°33.60'E 2029 Kholtsootiin gol Bayan-Olgiy Buyant 19.07.2008 Stream
24 MAIS2008072002 47°56.87'N 91°33.48'E 1444 Buyant gol Khovd Khovd 20–21.07.2008 River
25 MAIS2009070101 47°58.59'N 91°35.48'E 1428 Buyant gol Khovd Khovd 01–03.07.2009 River
26 MAIS2009070201 48°00.19'N 91°08.46'E 2120 Unnamed tributary of Buyant gol Khovd Bayanbulag 2.07.2009 Stream
27 MAIS2009070403 47°34.87'N 91°10.23'E 2049 Buyant gol Bayan-Olgiy Deluun 03.07.2009 Stream
Olgi
28 MAIS2009070404 47°36.55'N 91°08.14'E 1947 Buyant gol Bayan-Olgiy Deluun 04.07.2009 River
29 MAIS2009070405 47°50.64'N 90°38.56'E 2165 Chigertei gol Bayan-Olgiy Deluun 04–05.07.2009 River
30 MAIS2009070501 47°37.47'N 90°40.32'E 2241 Gantsmodnii gol Bayan-Olgiy Deluun 05.07.2009 Stream
31 MAIS2009070502 47°39.84'N 90°43.10'E 2196 Gantsmodnii gol Bayan-Olgiy Deluun 05–06.07.2009 River
32 MAIS2009070602 47°20.80'N 90°57.61'E 2519 Confluence of “Dood Asgat Uul gol” and “Ulaagchiny Davaa gol” (two unnamed stream) Bayan-Olgiy Bulgan 06.07.2009 Stream
33 MAIS2009070604 47°05.32'N 91°01.61'E 2056 Bulgan gol Bayan-Olgiy Bulgan 06–07.07.2009 River
34 MAIS2009070703 47°14.48'N 90°45.19'E 2563 Khar nuur Bayan-Olgiy Bulgan 07.07.2009 Lake
35 MAIS2009070704 47°14.62'N 90°45.15'E 2560 Outfall stream from Khar nuur Bayan-Olgiy Bulgan 07.07.2009 Stream
36 MAIS2009070801 47°06.93'N 90°56.48'E 2122 Bulgan gol and roadside pools Bayan-Olgiy Bulgan 08.07.2009 Stream
37 MAIS2009070802 47°02.28'N 91°01.76'E 2016 “Elstiin Davaa” gol (unnamed stream) Bayan-Olgiy Bulgan 08–09.07.2009 Stream
38 MAIS2009070803 47°02.37'N 91°02.07'E 2010 Bulgan gol Bayan-Olgiy Bulgan 08–09.07.2009 River
39 MAIS2009070901 46°46.80'N 91°18.24'E 1801 Bulgan gol Bayan-Olgiy Bulgan 09.07.2009 River
40 MAIS2009070902 46°46.20'N 91°19.40'E 1792 Bulgan gol Bayan-Olgiy Bulgan 09–10.06.2009 River
41 MAIS2009070903 46°46.17'N 91°19.66'E 1788 Tsonkhol gol/Turgen gol (tributary of Bulgan gol) Bayan-Olgiy Bulgan 09–10.06.2009 Stream
42 MAIS2009071002 46°33.19'N 91°23.31'E 1509 Deed Nariin gol Border of Bayan-Olgiy and Hovd Bulgan 10.07.2009 Stream
43 MAIS2009071003 46°08.07'N 91°32.50'E 1200 Bulgan gol Khovd Bulgan 10–12.07.2009 River
44 MAIS2009071101 46°08.29'N 91°32.46'E 1210 Oxbow of Bulgan gol Khovd Bulgan 12.07.2009 Lake
45 MAIS2009071202 46°07.47'N 92°03.25'E 1470 Uyench gol Khovd Uyench 12–13-.07.2009 Stream
46 MAIS2009071301 46°15.63'N 92°04.37'E 1683 Urd Jargalant gol Khovd Uyench 13.07.2009 Stream
47 MAIS2009071302 46°15.66'N 92°04.36'E 1677 Uyench gol Khovd Uyench 13.07.2009 Stream
48 MAIS2009071401 46°37.21'N 92°13.84'E 2544 Bodonch gol Khovd Must 14.07.2009 Stream
49 MAIS2009071501 46°55.28'N 91°54.65'E 2311 Bortiin gol Khovd Munkhkhairkhan 15.07.2009 Stream
50 MAIS2009071503 46°54.89'N 91°44.83'E 2708 Tributary of Bortiin gol Khovd Munkhkhairkhan 15–16.07.2009 Stream
51 MAIS2009071701 47°20.40'N 91°51.79'E 1762 Khoid Tsenkher gol Khovd Duut 17–18.07.2009 Stream
52 MAIS2009071801 47°33.56'N 91°45.66'E 1865 Tsagaan Burgasnii gol Khovd Duut 18–19.07.2009 Spring
53 MAIS2009072002 48°14.74'N 91°54.09'E 1172 Khovd gol Khovd Khovd 20.07.2009 River
54 MAIS2009072003 48°09.20'N 91°44.58'E 1269 Buyant gol Khovd Khovd 20–21.07.2009 Stream
55 MAIS2009072101 47°58.56'N 91°35.80'E 1420 Buyant gol Khovd Buyant 21.07.2009 Stream
56 MAIS2010070402 49°20.40'N 91°40.90'E 1876 Orlogiin gol Uvs Umnugovi 04.07.2010 River
57 MAIS2010070403 49°07.10'N 91°37.51'E 1593 Orlogiin gol Uvs Umnugovi 04.07.2010 River
58 MAIS2010070502 49°13.70'N 91°18.64'E 1701 Shaazgai nuur Uvs Khovd 05.07.2010 Lake
59 MAIS2010070603 49°13.82'N 91°04.38'E 1475 Braid of Shiver gol Uvs Khovd 06.07.2010 Stream
60 MAIS2010070702 49°17.00'N 90°54.18'E 1405 Khovd gol bridge Uvs Khovd 07.07.2010 River
61 MAIS2010070802 49°18.12'N 90°31.78'E 1467 Braid of Khovd gol Bayan-Olgiy Nogoonnuur 08.07.2010 River
62 MAIS2010070803 49°34.66'N 90°02.10'E 1764 Zakhiin-Us gol Bayan-Olgiy Nogoonnuur 08–09.07.2010 Stream
63 MAIS2010070902 49°46.40'N 90°01.36'E 1694 Baga Khatuugiin gol Bayan-Olgiy Nogoonnuur 09–10.07.2010 River
64 MAIS2010071002 49°42.23'N 90°13.82'E 1526 Bokhmoron/Tavan salaa gol Uvs Bukhmurun soum 10.07.2010 River
65 MAIS2010071003 49°59.81'N 90°16.73'E 1763 Altan gadas gol Uvs Bukhmurun soum 10–11.07.2010 River
66 MAIS2010071101 49°46.55'N 90°25.87'E 1504 Altan gadas gol Uvs Bukhmurun soum 11.07.2010 River
67 MAIS2010071102 50°13.86'N 90°45.39'E 1552 Khoig gol Uvs Sagil 11.07.2010 River
68 MAIS2010071302 50°12.34'N 91°12.12'E 1637 Omno Bij bulag Uvs Sagil 13.07.2010 Spring
69 MAIS2010071402 50°43.04'N 92°35.96'E 1043 Tokhilog gol Uvs Davst 14.07.2010 River
70 MAIS2010071403 50°41.50'N 92°35.57'E 1003 Braid of Tokhilog gol Uvs Davst 14–15.07.2010 River
71 MAIS2010071502 50°34.57'N 91°46.22'E 1281 Borshoo gol Uvs Sagil 15–16.07.2010 Stream
72 MAIS2010071601 50°30.69'N 91°44.70'E 1229 Unnamed spring brook Uvs Sagil 17.07.2010 Stream
73 MAIS2010071602 49°53.54'N 91°21.14'E 1849 Confluence of Javartiin gol and Turgen gol Uvs Turgen 16–17.07.2010 River
74 MAIS2010071605 49°54.23'N 91°24.66'E 1812 Buural gol Uvs Turgen 17.07.2010 Stream
75 MAIS2010071701 49°54.24'N 92°12.51'E 955 Teeliin gol Uvs Tarialan 17–18.07.2010 River
76 MAIS2010071802 50°03.15'N 94°09.25'E 923 Nariin gol Uvs Zuungovi 18–19.07.2010 Spring
77 MAIS2010071902 49°26.76'N 94°47.76'E 1688 Baruun Turuun gol Uvs Undurkhangai 19–20.07.2010 River
78 MAIS2010072001 49°23.31'N 94°26.57'E 1832 Unknown stream Uvs Tsagaankhairkhan 20–21.07.2010 Stream