Abactinal (A) and actinal (B) view of Parvulastra exigua, with equivalent views of Parvulastra dyscrita (E, F), with the P. exigua mottled color morph found on the east coast of South Africa (C) and an adult P. exigua laying sticky eggs via oral gonopores onto the underside of a rock (D). All photos by C.L. Griffiths; individuals not to scale, with approximate sizes given in Table 5.

  Part of: Payne RP, Griffiths CL, von der Heyden S, Koch E (2015) The cushion–star Parvulastra exigua in South Africa: one species or more? ZooKeys 524: 1-16. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.524.6145