Load strengths of mandibles from a T. dichotomus adult male. Abbreviations: Right = right mandible; Left = left mandible. Intact = right and left mandibles in the intact state; Broken = the gear-like structure was broken before the measurement. Vertical bars indicate standard errors of the mean (SE). Significant differences between mandible break-resistance strengths are indicated by different letters (a, b; Tukey, p < 0.05).

  Part of: Ichiishi W, Shimada S, Motobayashi T, Abe H (2019) Completely engaged three-dimensional mandibular gear-like structures in the adult horned beetles: reconsideration of bark-carving behaviors (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Dynastinae). ZooKeys 813: 89-110. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.813.29236