Gear-like structures on mandibles of adult horned beetles. To show the mandibular gear-like structure, the head was split along the anterior midline, and the mandibles were laid out and viewed from the inside. A Mandibles of a T. dichotomus male adult B diagram of structures in Fig. 6A; gear-like structures are shown as stipple. Arrows indicate the tip of each tooth. Scale bar: 2 mm.

  Part of: Ichiishi W, Shimada S, Motobayashi T, Abe H (2019) Completely engaged three-dimensional mandibular gear-like structures in the adult horned beetles: reconsideration of bark-carving behaviors (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Dynastinae). ZooKeys 813: 89-110.