Scarring of flat paraffin surfaces; T. dichotomus heads were placed in the back position to show the widths of scars. A lateral view B frontal view. Only scratches from T. dichotomus are shown.

  Part of: Ichiishi W, Shimada S, Motobayashi T, Abe H (2019) Completely engaged three-dimensional mandibular gear-like structures in the adult horned beetles: reconsideration of bark-carving behaviors (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Dynastinae). ZooKeys 813: 89-110.