Female reproductive systems: 17–19 Pyrrhalta maculicollis 20–22 P. tibialis 23 P. humeralis 24–25 Tricholochmaea semifulva species complex. 18, 21, 23, 25 show the cross sections of the lower part of the vagina, where wounds were found in P. maculicollis; each cuticular, epidermal, and muscular layer are partly highlighted in the upper right corner. 19, 22 show enlarged parts of the cuticular, epidermal, and muscular layers; these samples were embedded in glycerine for two days before taking the images. Arrowheads in 22 point to the strip stained with toluidine blue. Abbreviations: c, cuticle; e, epidermis; m, muscles; sc, spermathecal capsule.

  Part of: Matsumura Y, Suenaga H, Kamimura Y, Gorb SN (2017) Traumatic mating by hand saw-like spines on the internal sac in Pyrrhalta maculicollis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae). In: Chaboo CS, Schmitt M (Eds) Research on Chrysomelidae 7. ZooKeys 720: 77-89. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.720.13015