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Resource citation: Torralba-Burrial A, Ocharan FJ (2013 -). BOS Arthropod Collection Dataset: Iberian Odonata distribution. 16604 data records. Contributed by Torralba-Burrial A, Ocharan FJ, Outomuro D, Ocharan R, Salona MI, Benitez-Donoso A, Martinez JA, Martinez SR, and Brotons-Padilla M. Online at http://www.gbif.es:8080/ipt/archive.do?r=Bos-Odo and http://www.unioviedo.es/BOS/Zoologia/artropodos/odonata, version 1.0 (last updated on 2013-04-08), GBIF key: http://gbrds.gbif.org/browse/agent?uuid=7e31baf8-f762-11e1-a439-00145eb45e9a. Data Paper ID: doi: 10.3897/zookeys.306.5289
Odonata are represented from the Iberian Peninsula by 79 species. However, there exists a significant gap in accessible knowledge about these species, especially regarding their distribution. This data paper describes the specimen-based Odonata data of the Arthropod Collection of the Department of Biología de Organismos y Sistemas (BOS), University of Oviedo, Spain. The specimens were mainly collected from the Iberian Peninsula (98.63% of the data records), especially the northern region. The earliest specimen deposited in the collection dates back to 1950, while the 1980’s and 2000’s are the best-represented time periods. Between 1950 and 2009, 16, 604 Odonata specimens were deposited and are documented in the dataset. Approximately 20% of the specimens belong to the families Coenagrionidae and Calopterygidae. Specimens include the holotype and paratypes of the Iberian subspecies Calopteryx haemorrhoidalis asturica Ocharan, 1983 and Sympetrum vulgatum ibericum Ocharan, 1985. The complete dataset is also provided in Darwin Core Archive format.
Odonata, Arthropoda, Iberian Peninsula, Entomological collections, Biodiversity collections, Distribution, datasets, Spain
Purpose: The purpose of this dataset is to make data associated with Odonata specimens deposited in the BOS Arthropod Collection (subcollection of Odonata: BOS-Odo) of the University of Oviedo, Spain. Iberian Odonata (and available data sets) and dragonfly data records are scanty when compared with the distribution data records from other European countries (e.g. Belgium, France, Germany, United Kingdom). Prior to publishing of this dataset, only 2700 data records associated with Iberian Odonata are accessible through GBIF data portal [accessed 2013/04/04], where as nearly 12000 data records from Iberian region for the period 1784-2009 can be tagged or extracted from various publications (includes authors unpublished data), some of which cite the specimens deposited in BOS Arthropod Collection (few listed in reference section). As depicted in Figure 1, other European data sets on dragonfly exceed by far the Iberian available records. For instance, British Odonata database comprises 500, 000 records (
Additional information: A list of publications citing Iberian odonate data contained in this dataset is provided in point 2 of reference section.
Odonata data records in major European data sets. Sources: BOS-Odo (this dataset); Flandes (
Project title: Informatización de la Colección de Artrópodos BOS de la Universidad de Oviedo / Digitisation of the BOS Arthropod Collection of University of Oviedo.
Project personnel: Antonio Torralba-Burrial
Former curator and promoter: Francisco J. Ocharan
Another administrative contact: Araceli Anadón.
BOS-Odo collectors: Collectors who have deposited more than 50 specimens include Antonio Torralba-Burrial, Francisco. J. Ocharan, David Outomuro, Rocío Ocharan, Marta I. Saloña, Antonio Benítez-Donoso, José Alberto Martínez, Saúl Ro-dríguez-Martínez, Matías Brotons-Padilla.
Funding: Digitisation of this biological collection is supported by Spanish National R+D+i Plan (MICINN, Spanish Government, grant ref. PTA2010-4108-I) and PCTI Asturias (Asturias Regional Government, ref. COF11-38) through a contract for ATB.
Study area descriptions/descriptor: Majority of the Odonata specimens depo-sited in BOS Arthropod Collection are from Iberian Peninsula, which has a geographic extent of 581, 300 km2, located between latitude 36° and 43°47'N, and between longitude 3°29'E and 9° 29'W, placed at southwest end of Europe. The geographic location and relief distribution of the Iberian Peninsula was responsible for it being glacial refuge (and speciation centre) for many groups of organisms during quaternary period, with limited contact with the rest of the continent. Later on se-veral faunal species belonging to other regions colonised the Iberian Peninsula, which makes it an interesting place for biogeographic or distribution range variations linked to climate change studies. Climatic variation in the Iberian Peninsula is diverse, with annual average air temperature ranges between 2.5 °C in high mountains in the north (Pyrenees) and 17 °C in thermo-Mediterranean zones in the south. Annual average rainfall varies between less than 200 mm in south east (e.g. some zones in Almeria province) and about 2200 mm in the north-west (north Portugal and south Galicia) (
According to the European Union Habitats Directive (Directive 92/43/CEE), most of the Iberian Peninsula is included in the Mediterranean region, with a narrow band in the north belonging to the Atlantic region and a bit of the Alpine region in the Pyrenees Mountains (biogeographic regions based on vegetation types are the same:
Design description: Figure 2, depicts the digitisation workflow. Prior to digitisation, specimen is carefully examined for its preservation status and if necessary, curative treatment is provided. Subsequent to this taxonomic identification status is examined. In case of non-identified specimens, taxonomic identification is carried out involving experts. Thereafter, data associated with specimens is digitised using ZOORBAR software. In case of absence of precise geo-coordinates, retrospective georeferencing is carried out. If the geo-coordinates are present, they are verified using digital cartography. Best practices as suggested by
BOS Arthropod Collection digitisation and data publishing workflow.
General taxonomic coverage description: All specimens were identified to species or subspecies level with the help of authoritative literature (
Taxonomic distribution of the Iberian Odonata BOS-Odo dataset.
Taxonomic spread of specimens housed in BOS Arthropod collection.
|Taxa||Nos. of genera||Nos. of species||Nos. of specimens in the collection|
Type specimens and specimens of threatened and protected species housed in BOS Arthropod collection.
|Scientific name||BOS-Odo ID||Reference|
|Aeshna juncea (Linnaeus, 1758)||1201-1213, 4421, 4665-4668, 6736-6737, 9499-9507, 10000-10002, 12120-12126, 13983-13985, 16235-16237||T|
|Brachytron pratense (Müller, 1764)||1268-1271, 5668||T|
|Calopteryx haemorrhoidalis asturica Ocharan, 1983||3715||H|
|3705-3714, 3716-3756, 3775-3804, 7381-7385, 7393||P|
|Coenagrion caerulescens (Fonsbolombe, 1838)||1944-1972, 4096-4100, 4972-4980, 5077-5079, 5777-5079, 5787-5788, 6123-6158, 6560-6561, 7115-7140, 11608, 11830-11831, 14367-14375||T|
|Coenagrion mercuriale(Charpentier, 1840)||1877-1943, 3894-4005, 4101-4124, 5109-5125, 5475-5476, 5738-5739, 5759, 6054-6086, 7141-7156, 8102-8106, 8374-8380, 11609-11620, 14354-14362||L|
|Coenagrion scitulum(Rambur, 1842)||2012-2035, 4158-4162, 5068-5076, 5766-5770, 8373, 11595-11607, 11810-11819, 14364-14366,||T|
|Cordulegaster bidentata Selys, 1843||2847||T|
|Gomphus graslinii Rambur, 1842||4655-4656, 7258-7259, 13867-13868, 13883, 13931, 14205-14215, 16072-16074||L|
|Gomphus simillimus Selys, 1840||798, 4561, 5962, 6993, 8048-804, 13869-13882, 13972, 14203-14204, 14401-14402, 15924-15929, 16075-16077, 16128||T|
|Gomphus vulgatissimus(Linnaeus, 1758)||797, 5327-5328, 8051-8052, 16241||T|
|Macromia splendens (Pictet, 1843)||14197-14198||L|
|Onychogomphus costae Selys, 1885||5963, 6779-6780, 11788||T|
|Orthetrum nitidinerve(Selys, 1841)||592-593, 3064||T|
|Oxygastra curtisii(Dale, 1834)||789-792, 4333-4335, 8041, 14186-14196, 14269-14275, 14612-14689, 14923-15019, 15543-15596, 16026-16059||L|
|Sympetrum flaveolum(Linnaeus, 1758)||187-193, 2871-2873, 2901, 4633-4634, 4645, 16133-16135, 16209-16233||T|
|Sympetrum striolatum (Charpentier, 1840)||16245, 16247||G|
|Sympetrum vulgatum ibericum Ocharan, 1985||194-206, 5640||P|
*: G = gynandromorph, H = holotypus; L = legally protected species; P = paratypus; T = threatened sp. in Spain.
Family: Calopterygidae, Coenagrionidae, Lestidae, Platycnemididae, Aeshnidae, Cordulegastridae, Corduliidae, Gomphidae, Libellulidae.
Common names: Dragonflies, Insects, Arthropods.
General spatial coverage: As evident from Figure 4, majority of the specimens (98.63% of total data) are from the Iberian Peninsula (mainly Spain, but also records of Portugal). The Northern part of the Peninsula is better covered: Asturias (~ 4100 specimens) and Huesca (~3400) are the provinces with more exemplars, followed by Navarra, Teruel, Zaragoza, León, Álava and Vizcaya (between 1700-500 records). Data of other 32 Spanish provinces and 2 old Portuguese continental provinces (3 districts) are available in the database (Fig. 5). Other countries appear in the collection with few specimens: Morocco and Austria, the following countries by specimens, have 40 registers each one.
Coordinates: 30°0'0"N and 47°0'0"N Latitude; 27°0'0"W and 32°0'0"E Longitude.
Geographic distribution of specimens in the BOS-Odo dataset: a global distribution b Iberian distribution.
Specimens in each Spanish/Portuguese provinces in the BOS-Odo dataset.
Parent collection identifier: Colección de Artrópodos BOS
Collection name: Colección de Artrópodos BOS de la Universidad de Oviedo: Odonata (BOS-Odo)
Collection identifier: http://data.gbif.org/datasets/resource/12776/
Specimen preservation method: Specimens are preserved as dry specimens (pinned or in transparent envelopes or in tubes) or in 70° ethanol, sorted alphabetically by family/genus/species and numerically by specimen code in drawers of metallic mobile cabinets in a cold chamber at 6 °C. In drawers with dry specimens paradichlorobenzene is used as insecticide, an additional protection for when the drawers are taken to the lab for study (see
Curatorial unit: 16604 with an uncertainty of 0 (Specimens)
Method step description: The processing workflow is shown in Figure 2. Prior to di-gitisation, odonate specimens in the BOS Arthropod Collection were examined and their preservation status revised: specimens were pinned, labelled and frozen to deparasitize when necessary. The status of the prepared specimens is now as follows: half (48%) of the specimens hosted in the collection are pinned adults, 22% are preserved in 70% ethanol, 18% are dried exuviae and 11% are dry specimens in transparent envelopes. All specimens are stored in metal cabinets in a cold chamber (6°C). More information about these preparation and preservation methods can be found in Entomology handbooks (e.g.,
If a dragonfly specimen had been identified before the digitisation process, then its identification was revised. When the identification label was lacking or incomplete, specimens were identified with suitable literature (see section on quality control). All biodiversity data available on the specimens’ labels (i.e., specimen code, species identification and name of determiner, sex, biological phase, locality, date, habitat, collector and observations) were included in a database using ZOORBAR software (http://www.gbif.es/zoorbar/zoorbar.php), which exports data in Darwin Core (v1.2) format.
A taxonomic thesaurus was developed that includes all synonyms used in Iberian Odonata publications and spelling variants of scientific names. The thesaurus was used to convert the species identifications archived in the offline database (i.e., the species names appearing on the original specimen labels) to the correct/verified scientific name prior to being exported to the online ZOORBAR database.
Other geographic data (municipality, GPS coordinates, altitude, etc.) from specimen labels or associated publications were added to the database when available. GPS coordinates (in UTM/MGRS format) were included without resolution changes (grids of 10 × 10 km or 1 × 1 km are common in entomological studies); ZOORBAR converts the coordinates to decimal degrees and fills out the uncertainty radius at the export data step. Retrospective georeferencing of specimens (see
Biodiversity data were exported to a dataset in Darwin Core (v1.2) format. DARWIN_TEST software was used to validate and clean the geographic, taxonomic and additional data associated with the specimens. Erroneous data were corrected and data cleaning was repeated to enhance the data quality (see details in the section on quality control).
Coordinates of threatened species protected by law (e.g., Macromia splendens, Oxygastra curtisii, Gomphus graslinii and Coenagrion mercuriale, included in the European Union Habitats Directive and in the Spanish Catalogue of Threatened Species) have been generalised to 0.01° in the online database (see
The dataset was transformed to a Darwin Core Archive format with metadata and was uploaded to the Integrated Publishing Toolkit (IPT v2.0.4) of the Spanish node of the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) (http://www.gbif.es:8080/ipt). On the BOS Arthropod Collection website (http://www.unioviedo.es/BOS/Zoologia/artropodos), links to data pertaining to the BOS odonate specimens included in the GBIF data portal were also provided. The offline version of the dataset includes the identification history of each specimen (17846 items), the habitats in which the specimens were collected, and notes on materials derived from specimens (e.g., microscopic preparations, morphometric data, publications, etc.). This information is available on request.
Study extent description: Specimens are mainly from the north half of the Iberian Peninsula, and were collected between 1973 and 2012 (though there are some outliers from other territories or time periods). Half of the Iberian odonate records in the dataset are from the 2000s and a quarter from the 1980s, which can facilitate comparisons over time to assess changes in distribution related to global change, climate change or specific alterations of ecosystems.
Sampling description: Material deposited in the Odonata subcollection of the BOS Arthropod Collection has been collected in three ways (Fig. 6):
Sources of dragonfly specimens in this dataset.
1) Specimens from PhD dissertations carried out at the University of Oviedo (
2) Specimens collected during research projects, contracts, and development studies in the Department of Biology of Organisms and Systems of the University of Oviedo (32.15%).
3) Specimens from other sources: collections from students in Biology and Forestry Engineering programs at the University of Oviedo, practical courses and other sources (13.1%).
Odonates from source types 1 and 2 were collected using standardized sampling methods according to the requirements of each PhD thesis or project. Specimens from source type 3 are considered to be derived from opportunistic, unplanned and non-standardized sampling. General sampling methods include the collection of adult dragonflies with an entomological net (75.76% of records), exuviae picked directly from a substrate (18.35%), and larvae collected with an entomological net or a Surber sampler (5.82%) (see
Specimens deposited by
It is not feasible to describe in detail the specific methodologies of each project or study of source 2), but all follow the general guidelines outlined above (examples of different methods in
Quality control description: Validation and cleaning of geographic, taxonomic and additional data associated with the dragonfly specimens was incorporated at se-veral steps of the process (Fig. 2) as an essential component of the digitisation project (see
The identifications of all specimens were revised (or performed for the first time when no determination label was available with the original material) by A. Torralba-Burrial between 2010-2012 using suitable literature (adults:
Scientific names on labels were checked with a taxonomic thesaurus. This thesaurus was generated by the authors and includes all synonyms used in Iberian Odonata publications, as well as spelling variants of scientific names. Current European dra-gonfly taxonomy trends (
Unique collections’ accession numbers were assigned to each specimen. Other validation procedures, including geographic coordinates format, coordinates within country/provincial boundaries, congruence between collection and identification dates and absence of ASCII anomalous characters in the dataset were checked with DARWIN_TEST (v1.3) software (http://www.gbif.es/darwin_test/Darwin_test.php). Specimens with original MGRS coordinates in a 10 × 10 km grid failed to meet the bounding-box validation in localities near coastlines and country or provincial boundaries, but these coordinates (converted to decimal degrees) were kept in the dataset with the estimated uncertainty radius.
Object name: Darwin Core Archive Iberian Odonata distribution: data of the BOS Arthropod Collection of the University of Oviedo
Character encoding: UTF-8
Format name: Darwin Core Archive format
Format version: 1.0
Publication date of data: 2013-04-08
Licenses of use: This dataset [Colección de Artrópodos BOS de la Universidad de Oviedo: Odonata (BOS-Odo)] is made available under the Open Data Commons Attribution License: http://www.opendatacommons.org/licenses/by/1.0/
Object name: Colección de Artrópodos Biología de Organismos y Sistemas, Oviedo: odonatos
Character encoding: iso-8859-1
Format name: Darwin Core Archive
Format version: 1.0
Metadata language: English
Date of metadata creation: 2013-03-20
Hierarchy level: Dataset
Pablo Muñoz (Universidad Autónoma de Madrid) and Francisco Pando (Spanish GBIF node - CSIC) reviewed the manuscript and provided helpful comments. Vishwas Chavan and anonymous reviewers enhanced it with their suggestions. The Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) financed the publication of this data paper.
1) References cited within the metadata
2) Publications using data of this dataset