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This database includes spatial data of Antarctic, Sub-Antarctic and cold temperate echinoid distribution (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) collected during many oceanographic campaigns led in the Southern Hemisphere from 1872 to 2010. The dataset lists occurrence data of echinoid distribution south of 35°S latitude, together with information on taxonomy (from species to genus level), sampling sources (cruise ID, sampling dates, ship names) and sampling sites (geographic coordinates and depth). Echinoid occurrence data were compiled from the Antarctic Echinoid Database (
Southern Ocean, echinoids, Antarctic species, Sub-Antarctic species, cold temperate species
Project title: Macroecology of Southern Ocean echinoids: Distribution, Biogeography and Ecological Niche Modelling.
Personnel: Pierrat Benjamin (collection identifier, data collector, data manager, data publisher), Saucede Thomas (collection identifier, data collector), Alain Festeau (computer specialist), David Bruno (collection identifier, general manager).
Funding. Phd school E2S Dijon research allowance, CAML/TOTAL, ANR ANTFLOCKS (n°07-BLAN-0213-01), ECOS project (n°C06B02) and BIANZO I and II projects.
Study area descriptions / descriptor. The study area covers the Southern Ocean, Sub-Antarctic and cold temperate areas, from the Antarctic continent to 35°S latitude. The aim of the project was to constitute the most complete and consistent echinoid dataset for the Southern Ocean, a vast ocean area that is known for suffering from under-sampling (
Design description: This dataset was developed to determine the current distribution patterns of Antarctic and Sub-Antarctic echinoid species at the scale of the whole Southern Ocean and to highlight the forcing factors that may control them. The ecological niche modelling (ENM) of 19 echinoid species showed that distribution is mainly structured according to two patterns: (1) a first one represented by species that are not limited to the south of the Polar Front and distributed from the Antarctic coasts to the Sub-Antarctic and cold temperate areas, and (2) a second one with species restricted to the Antarctic area.
In addition, a similarity analysis of echinoid fauna between bioregions of the Southern Ocean was performed at species and genus levels. The analysis reveals faunal connections between southern South America and Sub-Antarctic areas, interpreted as a result of echinoid paleobiogeographic and evolutionary history. Trans-Antarctic faunal connections were also demonstrated and interpreted as a result of West Antarctic Ice Sheet collapses and setting up of trans-Antarctic seaways during the Pleistocene.
Among the environmental parameters that may control echinoid distribution, three parameters seem to be the main forcing factors of echinoid distribution: depth, sea-ice cover and sea surface temperature. However, the respective contributions of these parameters vary among species. Differences are particularly emphasized in the case study of the genus Sterechinus, Sterechinus neumayeri being the species the most dependent on environmental conditions that prevail along the Antarctic coasts (sea surface temperature and sea-ice cover), while Sterechinus antarcticus does not seem to be so much under the control of these parameters. However, Sterechinus antarcticus is not present over the whole area of its potential distribution, what can be explained as the result of either (1) oceanographic factors (role of the Polar Front as a biogeographic barrier), (2) biotic interactions (inter-specific competition) or (3) temporal contingencies (ongoing range expansion).Taxonomic coverage
General taxonomic coverage description: This database is devoted to all echinoid species inhabiting ocean areas south of 35S latitude (Echinodermata: Echinoidea). Echinoids are well represented in the Antarctic benthic communities in terms of frequency, abundance and species richness. They are frequently collected both at shallow depths over the continental shelf and in deeper waters of the continental slope and ocean basins. With 82 species ever described that represent about 10% of echinoid species worldwide, the Southern Ocean is particularly rich in echinoid species. The Antarctic echinoid fauna is characterised by a relative high morphological diversity and high rate of endemism (66% of species -
Order: Arbacioida, Cassiduloida, Cidaroida, Clypeasteroida, Echinoida, Echinothurioida, Holasteroida, Pedinoida, Salenoida, Spatangoida, Temnopleuroida.
Family: Apatopygidae, Arachnoididae, Arbaciidae, Aspidodiadematidae, Asterostomatidae, Brissidae, Cidaridae, Clypeasteridae, Diadematidae, Echinidae, Echinolampadidae, Echinometridae, Echinothuriidae, Fibulariidae, Hemiasteridae, Laganidae, Loveniidae, Mellitidae, Palaeotropidae, Pedinidae, Phormosomatidae, Plexechinidae, Pourtalesiidae, Saleniidae, Schizasteridae, Spatangidae, Temnopleuridae, Toxopneustidae, Urechinidae.Spatial coverage
General spatial coverage: The sampling area ranges from 35°S to 71°S latitude and from 180°W to 180°E longitude. The 35°S limit is coincident with the position of the Subtropical Convergence (
Coordinates: 71°0'0"S and 35°0'0"S Latitude; 180°0'0"W and 180°0'0"E Longitude.Temporal coverage
1872–2010.Natural collections description
Parent collection identifier: Pierrat Benjamin, David Bruno, Saucede Thomas
Collection name: Antarctic, Sub-Antarctic and cold temperate echinoid database
Collection identifier: Pierrat Benjamin, David Bruno, Saucede Thomas
Specimen preservation method: AlcoholMethods
Method step description: see sampling description above.
Study extent description: The study area includes the Antarctic, Sub-Antarctic and cold temperate regions. Five regions are particularly focussed on: (1) the Southern Ocean with the Antarctic Peninsula, the South Orkney Island, the Weddell Sea, Dronning Maud Land, Enderby Land, the Mawson Sea, Adelie Land, the Ross Sea, the Amundsen Sea and the Bellingshausen Sea, (2) the Sub-Antarctic Islands composed of Prince Edward, Crozet, Bouvet, Kerguelen and Heard Islands, (3) the South American coast, with the Argentinean coast, the Clilean coast and the Falkand Island, (4) the New Zealand coast and (5) the South Australian coast inclusive of Tasman coast.
Sampling description: Echinoids were collected during oceanographic cruises led in the Southern Ocean from 1872 to 2003. The database has been upgraded with data collected from 2003 to 2010. Sample depth ranges go from the shoreline to the deep sea. Sampling was performed with different protocols and different gears, specific to each cruise (Agassiz Trawl, Box Core, Beam Trawl, Epibenthic Sledge…). Each echinoid sample was separated at sea from other specimens of the macrofauna, then identified and fixed in formaldehyde for old samples, in 100% ethanol for recent ones.
Quality control description: Systematics reliability and consistency have been checked for by Bruno David, Thomas Saucède and Benjamin Pierrat, identification being based on species descriptions produced by
Data resources: The data underpinning analyses of the paper are deposited at GBIF, the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, http://ipt.biodiversity.aq/resource.do?r=antarctic_subantarctic_and_cold_temperate_echinoid_databaseDatasets
Dataset description: Our knowledge on Antarctic echinoids have been synthesized by
Object name: Darwin Core Archive Antarctic, Sub-Antarctic and cold temperate echinoid database
Character encoding: UTF-8
Format name: Darwin Core Archive format
Format version: 1.0
Publication date of data: 2012-03-26
Metadata language: English
Date of metadata creation: 2012-03-26
Hierarchy level: Dataset