Corresponding author: Mingyi Tian ( firstname.lastname@example.org )
Academic editor: Achille Casale
© 2017 Bin Feng, Guofu Wei, Mingyi Tian.
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Citation: Feng B, Wei G, Tian M (2017) A review of the cavernicolous genus Guiaphaenops Deuve, with the description of a new species (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Trechinae). ZooKeys 669: 53-63. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.669.12334
The subterranean ground beetle genus Guiaphaenops Deuve, 2002 is taxonomically reviewed. This poorly known genus is different from Guizhaphaenops Vigna Taglianti, 1997 in having convex propleura which is visible from above and elytral chaetotaxy especially the humeral group of the marginal umbilicate series, in which the 1st pore is transversely and backwardly shifted. The second species, G. deuvei Tian, Feng & Wei, sp. n., is described from a limestone cave at Yangli Cun (Village), Lingyun Xian (County), Baise Shi (Prefecture), northwestern Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. A key to the species and a distribution map of Guiaphaenops are also provided.
China, Guangxi, ground beetle, new species, semi-aphaenopsian, subterranean
Karstic landscapes are diverse in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, covering more than 42% of the total terrestrial area and having more than 60,000 caves (
Guiaphaenops Deuve, 2002 was established as a subgenus of Guizhaphaenops Vigna Taglianti, 1997 to arrange Guiaphaenops lingyunensis Deuve, 2002, a semi-aphaenopsian species (
In recent years, more material of Guiaphaenops has been collected by
The blind beetles for this study were collected visually using an aspirator and preserved in 50% ethanol before study. All specimens are deposited in the insect collection of South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, China (
Techniques, terminology and abbreviations used in the text follow
Subgenus Guiaphaenops (of Guizhaphaenops Vigna Taglianti, 1997), Deuve, 2002: 516 (type species: Guizhaphaenops lingyunensis Deuve, 2002).
Genus Guiaphaenops, Uéno, 2006: 22
Median sized and semi-aphaenopsian beetles, eyeless and depigmented; appendages rather long, antennae extending at (female) or over (male) elytral apices; dorsal surface glabrous though a few short hairs present on genae; fore part including mandibles nearly as long as elytra. Head rather elongated, much longer than wide, sub-tubiform; genea slightly and gradually narrowed posteriorly, frontal furrows uncompleted, effaced posteriorly, presence of two pairs of frontal setiferous pores; mandibles thin and elongated, feebly curved apically, right mandibular teeth bidentate; mentum and submentum fused, mental tooth simple, base of mentum distinctly concave, submentum 8- to 10-setose. Prothorax evidently wider than head, propleura distinctly convex and evidently visible from above; pronotum sub-quadrate, slightly wider than head, evidently longer than wide, presence of two pairs of latero-marginal setae, side margins slightly or strongly sinuate before hind angles which are more or less broadly lobed. Elytra sub-ovate, much wider than prothorax, shoulders rounded, prehumeral borders arcuate or nearly oblique, lateral margins ciliate in basal half; striae lacking though somewhat traceable; presence of two dorsal pores and the preapical pore on each elytron. Chaetotaxy: the 1st pore in the humeral group of the marginal umbilicate series transversely and backwardly shifted, at level behind the 2nd pore; the 5th and 6th pores in the middle group close to each other. Protibia smooth, without longitudinal sulcus; only the 1st protarsomere modified in male. Abdominal ventrite VII bisetose in male, while quadrisetose in female. Male genitalia weakly sclerotized, very small, slightly curved ventrally in lateral view, with a quite large sagittal aileron; apical lobe broad in dorsal view; parameres moderately developed, each with 4 rather short apical setae.
Though Guiaphaenops is more or less similar to the genus Guizhaphaenops, the peculiar characteristics such as propleura of prothorax convex and visible from above and the 1st pore of elytral marginal umbilicate series transversely and backwardly suggest that it has to be isolated from the latter genus (Uéno, 2006). Guiaphaenops is probably closer to Zhijinaphaenops Uéno & Ran, 2002 than to Guizhaphaenops in a strict sense because the above mentioned morphological features of Guiaphaenops are also shared by Zhijinaphaenops. However, Guiaphaenops is easily distinguished from the latter genus by its glabrous and smooth body (wholly pubescent in Zhijinaphaenops), roundly lobed hind angles (well-marked in Zhijinaphaenops), presence of anterior frontal pores on head and hind latero-marginal setae on pronotum (both absent in Zhijinaphaenops), and sub-ovate elytra (elongated ovate in Zhijinaphaenops).
China (Guangxi). Known only by two species from four limestone caves in Lingyun Xian (Fig.
|1||Latero-margins of pronotum strongly sinuate before hind angles (Fig.
||G. deuvei Tian, Feng & Wei, sp. n.|
|–||Latero-margins of pronotum slightly sinuate before hind angles (Fig.
||G. lingyunensis Deuve, 2002|
male, an anonymous cave near Yangli Cun, Jiayou Zhen, Lingyun Xian, Baise Shi, Guangxi, 24°28'39"N, 106°37'52"E, 643 m, VII-25-2012, Mingyi Tian, Weixin Liu, Feifei Sun & Haomin Yin leg., in South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, China (
A larger species, latero-margins of pronotum strongly sinuate before hind angles which are distinctly lobed and reflexed (Fig.
Length: 7.0 mm, width: 2.0 mm. Fore body (including mandibles) shorter than elytra. Habitus as in Fig.
Yellowish brown, with pale appendages. Moderately shiny. Body smooth and glabrous, except genae, underside of head and prosternum each with several sparse setae, ventrites IV-VI with a few short setae between paramedian setae. Microsculptural engraved meshes finely transverse striated.
Head much longer than wide (HLm/HW = 2.45, HLl/HW = 1.75); genae fairly developed, slightly dilated laterally, slightly constricted posteriorly until the well-marked neck constriction; widest at about middle of head from labrum to base; frons and vertex convex, frontal furrows deep and well-marked, divergent at base and apex, ended a little behind the widest part; clypeus transverse, quadrisetose; labrum transverse, frontal margin more or less serrate, 6-setose; anterior and posterior frontal setiferous pores located at about middle of head from labrum to neck constriction and 1/3 from base to labrum respectively; ligula well developed, bisetose at apex; submentum 8-setose. Antennae long, the 1st antennomere stouter than other, slightly shorter than the 2nd which is slightly shorter than the 11th; the 5th and 6th longest, each about twice as long as the 1st, then gradually shortened towards the 10th.
Pronota of Guiaphaenops species. a G. deuvei Tian, Feng & Wei, sp. n. b G. lingyunensis Deuve.
Left elytra of Guiaphaenops species, chaetotaxy shown by white points. a G. deuvei Tian, Feng & Wei, sp. n. b G. lingyunensis Deuve.
Legs thin and rather long, the 1st tarsomere as long as the 2nd–4th tarsomeres together in fore, but longer in middle and hind legs.
Male genitalia (Fig.
Dedicated to Dr. Thierry Deuve of the National Museum of Natural History, Paris, a well-known carabidologist who has described many new ground beetles of China.
China (Guangxi) (Fig.
Guiaphaenops lingyunensis Deuve, 2002: 518 (type locality: Cave Shen Dong); Uéno, 2006: 24
A smaller species, latero-margins of pronotum slightly sinuate before hind angles (Fig.
1 male, X-14-2015, cave Mi Dong, Mawang Cun, Sicheng Zhen, Lingyun Xian, Baise, Guangxi, 24°24'20"N, 106°35'52"E, 410 m, XII-9-2015, Mingyi Tian & Jujian Chen leg., in
China (Guangxi). Known from three caves (Shen Dong, Mi Dong and a cave near Dazai Tun) in Lingyun Xian (
Mi Dong is located at about one kilometre from Mawang Cun, in a valley below the main road from Lingyun to Leye. It opens above a path from the village to Sha Dong, a deeper and larger cave nearby. It is short, after 20 m from the entrance there is a large and complete dark room of 30–50 m in diameter. Majority part of this room was muddy or wet. The two beetle specimens were found quickly running on the wet ground. Other cave animals observed in Mi Dong were two species of millipedes and a bat.
First of all, we are very grateful to Dr. Thierry Deuve (the National Museum of Natural History, Paris, France) for his advice and help to check the holotype specimen of Guiaphaenops lingyunensis Deuve, 2002. We also thank Dr. Arnaud Faille (Bavarian State Collection of Zoology, Munich, Germany) for his comments and suggestions that were helpful to improve the manuscript. The cave biological surveys were partially sponsored by the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant no. 20134404110026) and the World Bank GEF-financed project “Guangxi integrated forestry development and conservation.”