Corresponding author: Toshiya Hirowatari ( firstname.lastname@example.org )
Academic editor: Erik van Nieukerken
© 2017 Toshiya Hirowatari, Guo-Hua Huang, Min Wang.
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Citation: Hirowatari T, Huang G-H, Wang M (2017) Review of the genus Roeslerstammia, with a new species from China (Lepidoptera, Roeslerstammiidae). ZooKeys 668: 107-122. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.668.11896
The new species Roeslerstammia tianpingshana sp. n. is described from Hunan, China as the first record of the genus in the country. Examination of two enigmatic Indian species, R. metaplastica Meyrick, 1921 and R. hemiadelpha Meyrick, 1922, revealed that the latter is a synonym of the former. The male and female genitalia of R. metaplastica are described and illustrated for the first time. A checklist for the genus is given.
Genitalia, Hunan, India, morphology, new species, taxonomy
The family Roeslerstammiidae (= Amphitheridae) includes 57 species, mostly Australian, with one genus (Roeslerstammia Zeller, 1839) extending from Europe to Japan, and several genera (e.g., Agriothera Meyrick, 1907 and Telethera Meyrick, 1913) in the Oriental tropics (Heppner 2008). Two species of Agriothera were recorded from mainland China (
In May, 2009, an unknown species of Roeslerstammia was collected at Tianpingshan, in the northern part of Hunan Province, China. As a result of examination of morphological characters such as the wing markings, wing venation, and genitalia, it was concluded that it was a new species of Roeslerstammia, and it is described here. In addition, two enigmatic species of Roeslerstammia from India (Punjab) described by Meyrick, which have never been examined since the original descriptions, are also investigated in order to clarify their identities on the basis of examination of the genitalia.
Field surveys (light trap) were conducted in Tianpingshan (1,500 m), Badagongshan National Nature Reserve, Hunan Province, China on May 26–27, 2009 and on August 12–14, 2014. As for the two Indian species of the genus Roeslerstammia, syntype specimens deposited in the collection of the Natural History Museum (BMNH) were examined. Interocular index (= vertical eye diameter/inteocular distance) of
HUNAU Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha.
Meyrick, 1921: 439, lectotype here designated;
Meyrick, 1922: 553, lectotype here designated;
Lectotype ♂ (here designated), “Murree [Hills, Punjab] / 7500 ft/June 18 / Dutt Coll”, “Presented by / R.L.E.Ford. / B.M.1949–487.”, “Roeslerstammia metaplastica Meyrick / det.T.B.Flecher”, “♂” (Fig.
Type series of Roeslerstammia spp. from India. A Lectotype of R. metaplastica Meyrick, 1921, male B Ditto, labels C Paralectotype of R. metaplastica Meyrick, 1921, female D Ditto, labels E Lectotype of R. hemidelpha Meyrick, 1922, male F Ditto, labels G Paralectotype of R. hemidelpha Meyrick, 1922, female H Ditto, labels.
Paralectotype ♀, same labels as lectotype except for “♀” (Fig.
Lectotype ♂of Roeslerstammia hemiadelpha Meyrick, 1922 (here designated), “Murree Hills / Punjab / 7500 ft / May 1920 / Dutt Coll”, “Presented by / R.L.E.Ford. / B.M.1949–487.”, “Roeslerstammia hemiadelpha Meyrick / det.T.B.Flecher”, “in Cop /C” “♂” (Fig.
Paralectotype ♀of Roeslerstammia hemiadelpha Meyrick, 1922, same labels as lectotype except for “♀” (Fig.
Distinguished from the other species by the narrow triangular creamy-white tornal spot of the forewing. In the male genitalia, the uncus is rectangular, apically bilobed and broad; the valva has a short sacculus terminating in a blunt process; the phallus is short, sinuate, and tapered toward the apex. In the female genitalia, the ductus bursae is slender, nearly straight; the corpus bursae is long-ellipsoidal, with a strongly sclerotized sword-shaped signum.
Forewing length 5.3 mm. Wing expanse 11.3 mm.
Head vertex, including between antennae, with raised pale yellow hairs; frons smooth, ochreous with golden luster, laterally pale yellow along eyes. Eyes moderate, interocular index ca 0.8. Antenna filiform, ca 0.9× as long as forewing; scales in flagellar segments near the middle of the antenna somewhat raised; scape pale yellow on basal half and dark brown on distal half; flagellum dark brown on basal 2/3, white on distal third, densely ciliate with sensory hairs ventrally. Labial palpus slightly upcurved, relatively long ca 2.2 × as long as horizontal eye diameter, 3rd segment as long as 2nd, entirely smooth, 2nd pale yellow, 3rd pale yellow with dark brown laterally.
Thorax tegula pale yellow (scales partly removed); mesonotum dark brown with metallic luster. Fore- and midlegs pale yellow, tarsomeres brown distally; hindleg pale yellow. Forewing, lanceolate, dark brown with metallic blue or golden luster; a narrow indistinct oblique marking present at basal 2/3 near costa, a line along fold from base, terminating in a narrow triangular creamy-white tornal spot; fringe dark brown. Hindwing dark brown, darker near apex; fringe dark brown.
Abdomen pale brown with golden luster, terminally with pale yellow tufts.
Male genitalia (Fig.
Male genitalia of Roeslerstammia metaplastica Meyrick, 1921, lectotype. A Dorsum (uncus and tegumen), dorsal view B Genitalia without phallus, lateral view C Ditto ventral view D Right valva, inner view E Phallus, lateral view F Ditto, dorsal view. Scale bar: 0.5 mm.
Forewing length 5.5 mm. Wing expanse 12.1 mm.
Similar to male but differs as follows: scales in flagellar segments near the middle of the antenna not raised; flagellum without dense sensory hairs ventrally. Forewing with the oblique marking on costa broader, but indistinct in “R. hemiadelpha”.
Female genitalia (Fig.
Holotype male, “Tianpingshan (1,500 m)/ Badagongshan/ Hunan, China/ 26–27.v.2009/ G.H. Huang & M. Li”, in HUNAU. Paratypes 3 males, same label as holotype, in HUNAU; 1 female, same label as holotype, in
Distinguished from other Roeslerstammia species by the triangular white marking on the costa of the forewing. In the male genitalia, the uncus is triangular, apically narrow and bilobed; the valva has a blunt process on the median part of the costa; the phallus is long, its basal half straight, distal half strongly upcurved and sinuate. In the female genitalia, the ductus bursae is stout, the caudal part upcurved; the corpus bursae is ellipsoidal, with a thorn-shaped signum.
Forewing length 7.3 mm in holotype, 6.7–7.1 mm in paratypes.
Wing expanse 15.3 mm in holotype, 13.5–14.3 mm in paratypes.
Head and thorax of Roeslerstammia tianpingshana sp. n. A Paratype female, dorsal view B Ditto, distal half of antenna C Ditto, head, frontal view D holotype, head, frontal view.
Head vertex, including between antennae, with raised blackish brown hairs anteriorly, yellow hairs posteriorly; frons smooth, ochreous with golden luster, laterally along eyes blackish brown with a metallic blue lustre (Fig.
Thorax tegula dark brown with metallic blue luster; mesonotum dark brown with metallic blue or golden luster. Foreleg dark brown, partly mixed with pale yellow; midleg pale yellow with dark brown tibial spurs; hindleg pale browish gray dorsally, tibia with pale yellow hairs ventrally. Forewing lanceolate, apex narrowly rounded, dark brown with metallic blue or golden luster; a clear triangular creamy white marking present at basal 2/3 of costa; fringe dark brown; veins R4 and R5 stalked, R5 reaching to costa (Fig.
SEM images of head and antenna in Roeslerstammidae. A–B Roeslerstammia tianpingshana sp. n., male C–D R. pronubella male, Japan. E–F Telethera blepharacma Meyrick, 1913, male, Japan. A, C, E Lateral aspect of the head B, D, F Antenna, lateral aspects.
Abdomen dorsal part pale brown with golden luster, terminally with pale yellow tufts of long hairs. Ventral part similar to dorsal part, terminally with creamy yellow smooth scales.
Male genitalia (Fig.
Male genitalia of Roeslerstammia tianpingshana sp. n., holotype. A Dorsum (uncus and tegumen), dorsal view B genitalia without phallus, lateral view (basal long hair scales of valva removed) C Ditto ventral view D Right valva, inner view E Phallus, lateral view F Ditto, dorsal view. Scale bar 0.5 mm.
Forewing length 7.6 mm. Wing expanse 15.8 mm.
Similar to male but differs as follows: antenna filiform, 1.1× as long as forewing. Scales on antennal flagellar segments not raised; flagellum dark brown on basal half and apical 1/7, white on distal half to near apex. Hindwing with frenulum of two slender bristles.
Female genitalia (Fig.
The specific name, an adjective, is derived from the type locality.
Unknown. The larvae of Roeslerstammia are first leafminers and then become skeletonizers and mainly feed on plants of Betulaceae (Alnus, Betula) and Malvaceae (Tilia) (e.g.,
China (Hunan Province).
On 26–27 May 2009, a total of four males and one female of the new species were collected in a light trap at Tianpingshan (1,500 m), Badagongshan National Nature Reserve, Hunan Province, China. On 12–14 August 2014, we ran a light trap in the same locality, but did not obtain additional material. The adults of R. pronubella and R. erxlebella are known to fly in spring and summer (
In the present study, it is confirmed that the new species has all of the following diagnostic characters of Roeslerstammiidae Bruand,  (= Amphitheridae Meyrick, 1913) proposed by
Among species of Roeslerstammia, R. tianpingshana is unique in having a blunt process on the median part of the costa of the valva in the male genitalia. In the other species, there is no such process on the costa, but instead a small process is present on the ventral part of the valva.
In Japan, R. nitidella and R. bella were described by
A check list of the genus Roeslerstammia is provided, based on
ROESLERSTAMMIA Zeller, 1839
erxlebella (Fabricius, 1787) (Alucita) Denmark
fuscocuprella (Haworth, 1828) (Tinea) England
chrysitella (Treitschke, 1833) (Oecophora) [Austria?]
aeneella (Duponchel, ) (Adela) France
erxlebeniella Zeller, 1839, emend.
bella Moriuti, 1972 Japan
durulguensis Budashkin & Kostjuk, 1993 Russia
pronubella ([Denis & Schiffermüller], 1775) (Tinea) Austria
transcaucasica Toll, 1958 Georgia
nitidella Moriuti, 1972 Japan
metaplastica Meyrick, 1921 India
hemidelpha Meyrick, 1922, syn. n. India
tianpingshana sp. n. China
We wish to express our cordial thanks to Kevin Tuck (